Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological condition that affects the central nervous system, specifically the brain and spinal cord. It is caused by the immune system mistakenly attacking the protective covering of nerve “fibres”, known as myelin.

As a result, communication between the brain and the rest of the body becomes disrupted, leading to a wide range of symptoms and complications.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) can significantly impact a person’s life, causing physical symptoms such as fatigue, muscle weakness, pain, visual loss and mobility challenges, as well as cognitive changes and emotional difficulties.

These effects can disrupt daily activities, relationships, and overall quality of life for individuals living with MS.

At CURA Medical Specialists, we have extensive experience with multiple sclerosis treatment. Sydney patients can contact our team for a consultation with one of our qualified neurologists.


What is multiple sclerosis?

Multiple sclerosis is a complex and multifaceted disease that varies greatly from person to person. It is categorised into different types based on disease progression and symptoms.

The main types of multiple sclerosis include:

  • Relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS): This is the most common form of MS, characterised by clearly defined relapses or flare-ups of symptoms followed by periods of “remission”, where symptoms improve or disappear. During relapses, new symptoms may appear or existing ones may worsen. RRMS can eventually transition into a more progressive form of the disease.
  • Primary progressive MS (PPMS): PPMS is less common than RRMS and is characterised by a steady progression of symptoms without distinct relapses or remissions. Individuals with PPMS typically experience a gradual worsening of symptoms over time, leading to disability. There may be temporary plateaus or minor improvements, but no significant periods of recovery.
  • Secondary progressive MS (SPMS): SPMS follows an initial period of relapsing-remitting MS. After a variable period of time, individuals with RRMS may enter a stage of SPMS where there is a gradual progression of symptoms with or without occasional relapses. SPMS can involve periods of remission or stability, but the overall trend is towards increased disability.

Each type requires an individualised treatment approach.


Cause of multiple sclerosis

The exact cause of multiple sclerosis remains unknown, but a combination of genetic and environmental factors contribute to its development.

Genetic predisposition and certain viral infections are thought to play a role in triggering the immune system’s abnormal response, leading to the attack on myelin. Lifestyle factors also play a role, as the risk of MS is increased by obesity, smoking and vitamin D deficiency.

While the cause is not fully understood, ongoing research aims to unravel the underlying mechanisms of this complex disease.


Symptoms of multiple sclerosis

MS symptoms can vary widely depending on the location and extent of nerve damage.

Some symptoms experienced by patients with multiple sclerosis include:

  • Fatigue
  • Muscle weakness
  • Numbness or tingling
  • Problems with coordination and balance
  • Difficulties with speech and swallowing
  • Cognitive impairments
  • Visual disturbances.

The severity and progression of symptoms can also fluctuate over time, with periods of relapse and remission.


Diagnosis of multiple sclerosis

Confirming an MS diagnosis can be challenging, as its symptoms often overlap with other conditions.

A comprehensive evaluation involving medical history, neurological examination, and various diagnostic tests is crucial for accurate diagnosis.

These tests may include:

  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans
  • Cerebrospinal fluid analysis (spinal tap)
  • Evoked potential tests
  • Specialised blood tests.

A confirmed diagnosis of MS helps guide treatment decisions and enables the healthcare team to develop a personalised management plan.


Treatments for multiple sclerosis

While there is currently no cure for multiple sclerosis, various treatment options aim to reduce the risk of relapses, slow disease progression, manage symptoms, and improve quality of life.

Disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) are commonly prescribed to reduce inflammation and prevent relapses. These medications can also help slow down the progression of MS. There are many types of DMT, including tablets, infusions and medications that are given by self-injection.

Other treatment approaches include:

  • Treatments to help recovery from relapses
  • Symptomatic therapies to reduce MS symptoms
  • Physical therapy with an MS physiotherapist
  • Occupational therapy
  • Lifestyle modifications

The choice of treatment depends on the type and severity of the disease, individual patient factors, and the healthcare provider’s expertise.



Multiple sclerosis is a complex condition that requires a personalised approach to treatment.

CURA Medical Specialists, with their expertise in neurology and multiple sclerosis care, offer comprehensive treatment options tailored to the individual needs of each patient.

From diagnosis to ongoing management, their team of dedicated professionals focuses on delivering the highest quality care, ensuring optimal outcomes and improved quality of life for individuals with multiple sclerosis.

Contact us today to schedule your consultation.


Multiple sclerosis treatment cost

The cost of multiple sclerosis treatment can vary depending on various factors, including the type of treatment, duration, and underlying cause.

It is advisable to consult with CURA Medical Specialists to obtain accurate and up-to-date information regarding the cost of treatment.

Patients will need to ensure they have a new or existing referral letter from a general practitioner or health professional.

Contact us today to schedule your consultation.

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Why Choose Us

Choose CURA Medical Specialists for your
multiple sclerosis treatment

CURA Medical Specialists stand out as a leading institution in the field of multiple sclerosis treatment. Our team of highly skilled neurologists and healthcare professionals specialise in delivering individual care, utilising the latest advancements in MS treatment.

With a patient-centred approach and a commitment to excellence, we prioritise the overall well-being of each individual.

By choosing CURA, you can be confident in receiving comprehensive, compassionate, and state-of-the-art care tailored to your unique needs.

Contact us today to schedule your consultation.

Meet our friendly and professional MS Specialist.

Dr Mahtab Ghadiri

Dr Mahtab Ghadiri


Dr Mahtab Ghadiri is a specialist in General Neurology and has subspecialist expertise in Multiple Sclerosis and other immune conditions of the central nervous system. Dr Ghadiri is a Staff Specialist Neurologist at St George Hospital. She is the Head of the Multiple Sclerosis clinic at St George Hospital and a Consultant Neurologist in the Multiple Sclerosis clinic at the Brain and Mind Centre/Royal Prince Alfred Hospital. She is a Conjoint Lecturer at the University of New South Wales.



For more information please read our most frequently asked questions:

The most effective treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS) varies depending on individual factors, but a variety of highly effective disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) are available to prevent relapses and slow down disease progression.

Yes, multiple sclerosis qualifies for disability support in Australia, and individuals with MS may be eligible for National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) support and/or the Disability Support Pension (DSP) based on the severity of their disability and its impact on their ability to work and manage daily activities.

The life expectancy of someone with MS in Australia is similar to that of the general population, although it can vary depending on factors such as the type and severity of MS, overall health, and access to healthcare and support services.

For information on new treatments for MS in 2023, it is recommended to consult with a healthcare provider or refer to the latest medical literature and guidelines as advancements in MS treatments continue to evolve.

Yes, multiple sclerosis affects the central nervous system, including the brain and spinal cord. It involves the immune system mistakenly attacking the protective myelin covering of nerve fibres, leading to inflammation and disruption of communication between the brain and the rest of the body.

Clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) is a single episode of neurological symptoms caused by inflammation and demyelination in the central nervous system, which is similar to MS.

MS can sometimes be diagnosed after a single attack, on the basis of specific findings on MRIs. When this is not the case, the diagnosis may be CIS. Patients with CIS are at risk of further disease activity or relapses, and thus their diagnosis may change to MS. It is important that these patients are thoroughly assessed and closely monitored by an experienced clinician.

Radiologically isolated syndrome (RIS) is the name given to the finding of abnormal spots on an MRI of the brain that look like multiple sclerosis spots, but without any associated symptoms of MS. Some patients with RIS will develop symptoms and their diagnosis may change to MS. It is important that these patients undergo a comprehensive assessment and ongoing monitoring by an experienced clinician.

PLEASE NOTE: This information is not intended to be used for diagnosis or treatment. It is aimed at presenting a perspective only and is not a substitute for a prescription or clinical assessment. Anyone experiencing a medical condition should consult their doctor.
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